Curry powder was developed by the British during their colonial rule to allow the taste of India to be taken home to England without having to obtain the numerous spices used in India. The first mention of it is in the 1774 edition of the cookbook The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse. Pictured is the 1777 edition frontispiece and title page. The curry powder included only black pepper and coriander.
Curry powder now commonly includes turmeric (the yellow color), coriander, cumin, dried chilies, and fenugreek. Madras curry powder is much spicier than common curry powder. Garam masala is a north Indian curry powder. It may include up to 12 different spices and often includes – cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, coriander, cumin, cardamom, dried chilies, fennel, and mace. It does not include turmeric; hence it is not yellow in color. Garam masala is usually added to a dish at the end of preparation or sprinkled over a dish before serving.